A T1D diagnosis is carried like a burden. The disease demands meticulous calculations, regular insulin injections, and constant monitoring to ensure a patient is spending as much “time-in-range” as possible. Time-in-range measures whether blood glucose levels taken throughout the day are as close to normal as possible (in-range) or too high or low (out-of-range).

The smaller amount of time spent in-range of the target blood glucose level, the higher the risk for long-term complications. Time-in-range goals vary depending on the individual, though it is advised to spend as much time in-range as possible to decrease the risk of complications. In a 2018 study published in Diabetes Care, it was found that every 10% (2.4 hours) spent out-of-range, increases the risk of developing diabetic neuropathy by 64%.   

Common Complications

  • Diabetic Retinopathy (vision loss)
    • 1 in 3 people with diabetes develop diabetic retinopathy
    • T1D patients are 2-5 times more likely to develop cataracts
  • Diabetic Neuropathy (nerve damage)
    • 50% of people living with diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy
    • Varies from mild numbing to significant pain
  • Kidney Disease
    • 1 in 3 people with T1D develop kidney disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease
    • People with T1D are 2-10 times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease
  • Skin conditions
    • Dry skin, infections, ulcers, complications with feet