Frequently Used Terms
During our analysis and research of the type 1 landscape, the JDCA has repeatedly revisited some important terminology. Below we explain some of the most important concepts that have acquired a formal definition for JDCA research. We will continue to add to this list as our research expands. If you have any questions about a term, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
When used in reports, we are referring to the four major diabetes charities that we closely monitor, which include the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes Research Institute Foundation, JDRF and Joslin Diabetes Center. The JDCA concentrates its diligence on these organizations because they engage in and are amongst the largest public fundraising organizations, provide audited financial statements and fund or conduct important research relating to the development of a type 1 cure.
A for-profit business or organization whose primary goal is to generate a return on investment for shareholders.
In the diabetes marketplace, commercial enterprises have held the primary role in improving management and treatment products for type 1 diabetics. Their recurring revenue model is best suited for improving products and creating innovative treatments.
Donations made to charitable organization by individuals or corporations through direct donation or fundraising efforts.
An idealized cure would return a patient to a state as if they did not have diabetes. This would involve restoring the immune system to normal including the production of insulin that would maintain stable and normal blood glucose levels. The person would be able to live a normal lifestyle without the need to monitor blood sugar levels, without restricting diet and would allow them to sleep care free. The person would be completely free of the disease as well as the risks of long term complications that accompany type 1.
An idealized cure represents the ultimate goal for anyone seeking a cure. However, achieving this outcome is extremely unlikely in a time frame that is relevant to current type 1 diabetics and donors. It is widely believed that an idealized cure will take at least several decades, if it is ever achieved.
Research supporting an idealized cure may be exploratory or theoretical in nature. It may not be guided by defined goals or have any immediate or practical applicability. Importantly, pursuing an idealized cure rationalizes a substantial amount of funding as cure related when it would be practically judged idealized and exploratory by most donor’s standards. Idealized cure initiatives divert resources from Practical Cure research with the hope that a cure may be developed as an incidental outcome or by-product of those initiatives.
A Practical Cure does not return the patient to a state as if they did not have diabetes. It seeks to deliver a result that most people with diabetes and families would consider an acceptable cure-like lifestyle. The JDCA is guided by the following definition of a Practical Cure:
For at least 1 year, a cure must:
- Not require blood glucose monitoring beyond once a week
- Not require carb counting
- Not restrict a patient’s diet
- Allow patients to sleep care free
- Maintain A1c levels between 6-7
A cure must be delivered through a treatment that:
- If it is surgical, requires a full recovery time of less than 72 hours
- If it is pharmacological, requires no more than a reasonable pill and/or injection regimen
A cure, which may include a drug regimen, must not have side effects, or pose longer term risks, greater than current complications of type 1
Prevention methods intend to stop diabetes from occurring in people who do not have established diabetes. Prevention that is intended to slow or halt the autoimmune attack may not relieve the symptoms of those who already have fully established type 1 diabetes. Thus, therapies that target solely prevention will not act as a treatment or cure for people who already have type 1 diabetes.